Rabindranath Tagore Biography, literature Works and Full Philosophy

Rabindranath Tagore Biography

Rabindranath Tagore Biography
Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore is a writer of India's national anthem "Jana Gana Mana" and Bangladesh's national anthem "Amar sonar Bangla" both. he is the first Indian who won Nobel prize. He is known not only in India but all over the world for his novels, literature, stories, and poems.

Rabindranath Tagore's Early life

Rabindranath Tagore ( nickname: "rabi" ) was born on 7 May 1861 in the jorasanko mansion in Calcutta to Debendranath Tagore ( 1817-1905 ) and Sarada Devi ( 1830-1875 ) and rabi was the youngest of thirteen surviving children.

His father Debendranath Tagore was head in the Brahmo Samaj and he works in a reconstructing Hindu organization that seeks to Encourage a monotheistic interpretation of the Upanishads and move away from the rigidity of Hindu conventionality which they felt was holding back India.

Debendranath Tagore also encouraged his family to find out English. Tagore's father invited several professional Dhrupad musicians to remain within the house and teach Indian academic music to the children.

Rabindranath Tagore was raised mostly by servants. his mother had died in his babyhood and his father traveled widely.

Higher intellect

Rabindranath Tagore was born in an extremely talented family. His brothers and sisters were of higher intellect which made him follow them.

Tagore's oldest brother Dwijendranath was a poet and philosopher. Another brother Satyendranath was the first Indian appointed to the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service.

Yet another brother Jyotirindranath was a composer, playwright, and musician. His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist.

Jyotirindranath’s wife Kadambari Devi slightly older than Tagore. she was a dear friend and a powerful influence. Her unexpectedly suicide in 1884 soon after he married, left him profoundly distraught for a year.


Rabindranath Tagore's childhood was very interesting. Growing in an artistic atmosphere he developed an interest in the field at an early age. he was instructed to stay in the house but the outside world fascinated him. In his boyhood, he together with his father to Bolpur ( Santiniketan ). After Bolpur, they spent a month in Amritsar and then in the Himalayas.

Rabindranath Tagore on a largely avoided classroom schooling His brother Hemendranath tutored and physically conditioned him-by having him swim the Ganges or trek through hills, by gymnastics, and by practicing wrestling and judo He learned drawing anatomy, history, and geography. Sanskrit, Literature, mathematics, and English-his least favorite subject.

Because Debendranath wanted his son to become a barrister, Rabindranath Tagore enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in 1878. In 1880 he returned to Bengal and published many poetical works and many things.

Rabindranath Tagore's Literary works at an early age

Rabindranath Tagore's first poem, which appeared over his name was first published in the 'Amrita Bazar Patrika' of 25th February 1875 His brother Dwijendranath Tagore started publishing a monthly magazine, the ‘Bharati’.

His long poem, The Poet's Story, first published in 'BHARATI'. Then onwards, he regularly contributed poems and proses to the ‘Bharati’ which appeared with the imaginary name Bhanu Singh Thakur.

In 1878, he accompanied his elder brother Satyendranath Tagore to England There he had the opportunity of studying English Literature under the guidance of Prof. Henry Morley. Besides studies in Literature, he had also taken lessons in Western Music.

In 1880, he returned to India and wrote two verse plays in Bengali, entitled ‘Kaal Mryigaya’ and ‘Valmiki Pratibha’ Both these plays were performed in his family living house and he played the leading role.

Rabindranath Tagore's Further life

In 1882, Rabindranath Tagore published his historical verse play, entitled ‘Rudra Chakra’ and a collection of his poems entitled 'Sandhya Sangeet’. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee became very much impressed by these two. In 1883 he married 10-year-old MRINALINI DEVI.

On 20th May 1884, Rabindranath lost his sister-in-law, the wife of Jyotindranath Tagore. It was a heavy shock for him as she was his boyhood friend and of the same age. He continued his works.

On 22nd August 1890, Rabindranath Tagore took his second voyage to England with his brother Satyendranath Tagore and from there they visited Italy and France. In 1890 Tagore began managing his vast parental estates in Shelaidaha (today a region of Bangladesh).

In 1891, he started a Bengali monthly magazine entitled ‘Sadhana’ His life in ‘Silaidah’ was one of the deepest and most joyous communions with nature. His popular verse play ‘Chitrangada’ was also written during his stay there.


Rabindranath Tagore was against the partition of Bengal and condemned the suppressive policy of the Government in the Press.

In those days, the plague spread over different parts of the country and he tried his best to make arrangements to help the sufferers.

He also worked with the peasants to support the farming condition and mostly lived in his boat. He opposed any kind of violence and thought of humanity because the greatest thing which may end the war.

Shanti Niketan

Santi-Niketan ( Rabindranath Tagore Biography )

Shantiniketan is a small town near Bolpur within the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, approximately 180 km north of Kolkata. it had been instituted by Maharshi Devendranath Tagore and later expanded by his son Rabindranath Tagore whose vision became what's now a university town, Visva-Bharati University.

In 1862 he acquired this property just after the 1 year of birth. It was in the hands of trustees that this can be used only for spiritual and holy activities. In 1901 Rabindranath Tagore expanded this and founded ABODE OF THE GOD.

He started traditional school there which was based on ancient Indian education but for that, he needed funds hence he sold the copyrights of his books and one of his ancestral houses. and his wife sold his wedding ornaments to support this cause.

Rabindranath's life's Sad years

Rabindranath Tagore had his saddest years between 1902 and 1907 as he lost many of his near and dear ones.

First, his wife died in 1902, then his younger daughter died, in 1905, he lost his father and his youngest son died in 1907.

He wrote a series of poems in memory of his wife and dedicated them to his wife under the title ‘Smaran’.

In this period, he became a significant novelist. He wrote his famous novels ‘Chokher Bali’ in 1903 and ‘Gora’ in 1906.

India's national anthem "Jana Gana Mana"

In 1908, Rabindranath Tagore was elected Political Provincial President of the Conference held in Pabna.

In the course of his speech delivered at the Conference. he laid stress upon Hindu-Muslim unity, rural uplift, education in villages, and cleanliness.

Song ‘Jana Gana Mana’ and was sung on the twenty-sixth annual session of the Indian National Congress.

In 1912, he left for Europe to make the West know the ways and methods of his teaching.

Won Nobel prize

Rabindranath Tagore Biography
Rabindranath Tagore

In London, W.B. Yeatts read translations of Rabindranath Tagore's poems to the famous English poets, editors, and critics. In September 1913, he came back to India and was warmly received by his countrymen.

On the 13th of November, the news of his winning the Nobel Prize for Literature reached India Gitanjali (Song of offerings). the book on which Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize was the first book of an English translation of his poems.

Gitanjali was a set of hundred and three poems, translated by the poet from his various poetical works in Bengali. The Westerners considered his work to be the most effective literary production of the year within the whole world.

In India, the Calcutta University honored him by giving the degree of Doctor of Literature, at a special convocation held on 20th December 1915 ON 3RD JUNE 1915, ‘KNIGHTHOODWAS’ CONFERRED ON HIM.

Exploring the world

Mahatma Gandhi along with his wife visited Shantiniketan on 22nd February 1915 but could not meet him and again on 6th March, he visited Shantiniketan and met Rabindranath Tagore for the first time.

In April 1919, the Jallianwala Bagh of Amritsar became the scene of bloodshed. In resistance against this, he gave up his title “Knighthood”.

He started touring again in 1920 and Rabindranath Tagore made his voyage back to India in July 1921 by influencing the west with his brilliant speeches.

At that point, the movement of noncooperation was going on but he didn't participate within the movement as he was against it.

Later years

In December 1921, that year, he entrusted to the Visvabharati all right of his Bengali books, his library, his landed property alongside the amount of the Nobel prize.

He again started traveling the world. Between 1878 and 1932, Tagore set foot in additional than thirty countries on five continents.

Gandhiji felt bad for seeing Rabindranath Tagore in his old age collecting funds for Visvabharati by dance and musical performances. So Gandhi requested one among his admirers to donate a sum of sixty thousand rupees for the Visvabharati.

On 7th August 1940, Sir Maurice Guyer, Chief Justice of India had the proud privilege as the representation of the University of Oxford to come to Shantiniketan and confer on Rabindranath Tagore an Oxford doctorate.


His Philosophy

Rabindranath Tagore feels the presence of God behind all experiences in man and that he reveals through poems. His poems reveal devotional mysticism as well as nature mysticism.

In many of his poems, there's a continuing feeling not only of the presence of God but also of His coming to him.

On the river Padma on the Ganges, he spent wonderful days. One fine evening all things became luminous with truth to him. He found that everything was in a state of flux but tending to reach the same goal.

He felt that at least he had found his religion, the religion, in which the God became defined in humanity and came close to him so as to need his love and cooperation TO HIM, DEATH WAS NOT A CALAMITY BUT A PERFECTION.

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